|Gentamicin Ampoules |
- Each 0.5 ml ampoule contains:
Gentamicin (as sulphate) 20 mg.
- Each 1 ml ampoule contains:
Gentamicin ( as sulphate) 40 mg.
- Each 2 ml ampoule contains:
Gentamicin (as sulphate) 80 mg.
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with a bactericidal activity interfering with the synthesis of bacterial protein.
Gentamicin is active against:
Gram negative bacteria : Brucella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter,
Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonads , Proteus, Serratia, Vibrio
Gram positive bacteria: many strains of staphylococcus aureus are
Gentamicin is rapidly and completely absorbed after I.M. injection.
Diffusion occurs mainly in extracellular fluids but C.S.F. diffusion is
Half life of gentamicin is about 2-3 hours but may be much longer
in neonates and in renal impairment .
Plasma protein binding is usually low.
Excretion is mainly renal as unchanged drug within 24 hours, thus
providing high concentrations in urine.
Indications & usage :
Gentamicin is used principally for the treatment of severe systemic
life threatening infections or infections caused by organisms resistant to
Neonatal sepsis and septicemia .
Urinary tract infections .
Biliary tract and gastro - intestinal infections
Otitis media and pneumonia
Skin, bone and soft tissue infections including burns, peritoneal
infections and pelvic infections.
Cat scratch disease and brucellosis
Gentamicin is usually used in combination with other antibiotics as
in the treatment and prophylaxis of endocarditis or infections due to
Pseudomonas aeruginosa .
In meningitis intrathecal , gentamicin is indicated as an adjunctive
therapy with systemic Gentamicin .
In patients allergic to gentamicin
Patients hypersensitive to other amino glycosides may contraindicate
the use of Gentamicin , because of cross sensitivity.
Side effects :
Nephrotoxicity is unusual
Neurotoxicity, manifested as ototoxicity, is rare in normal
The incidence of such side effects is directly related to the duration of
treatment ( > 10 days ) and to the amount of drug used .
Hypersensitivity reaction may occur
Drug interactions :-
Use of other nephrotoxic drugs , including other amino glycosides , vancomycin , some cephalosporins , cyclosporine , cisplatin and fludarabine , or potentially ototoxic drugs such as etacrynic acid , and perhaps furosemide may increase the risk of gentamycin toxicity
An antiemetic such as dimethyldrinate may mask the early symptoms of vestibular toxicity .
Neuromuscular – blocking properties of gentamycin may be provoke sever respiratory depression in patients receiving general anesthetics . or opoids
Warnings & precautions:
In renal impairment the dosage should be adjusted , and monitoring
of blood level is necessary.
Gentamicin should be discontinued if ringing, a sensation of fullness
in the ears or any hearing loss occurs.
Pregnancy: damage to the 8th cranial nerve of the fetus may occur.
Caution should be observed in patients with dehydration, myasthenia
gravis, parkinsonism or muscular weakness.
The product contains sodium metabisulphite , in sensitive individual
and particularity in asthmatics this substance may cause allergic reactions
and severe asthmatic attacks .
Antibacterial effects of gentamycin could be reduced by bacteriostatic
Gentamycin exhibits a synergistic action with a number of beta lactams in vivo.
Dosage & administration:
Usual dose : Intramuscular or intravenous infusion
3 to 5 mg / kg B.W. / day in divided doses every 8 hours
( 1 to l.7mg /kg B.W. every 8 hours)
- Urinary tract infections : 80 mg every 12 hours.
- Serious systemic infections : 80 mg every 8 hours.
- Life threatening infections : 80 mg every 6 hours,
and up to 5 mg /kg b. w. day.
Reduce dosage as soon as clinically indicated .
- Intramuscular or intravenous infusion .
- Premature or full term neonates up to 1 week of age:
2.5 mg/ kg B.W. every 12 or 8 hours
- Older neonates or infants:
7.5 mg/ kg B.W. / day (2.5 mg /kg every 8 hours)
6 to 7.5 mg /kg B.W /day (2.0 to2.5 mg / kg every 8hours)
The course of treatment , generally, should be limited to 7 - 10 days
Gentamicin 20 mg. Box of 3 or 100 ampoules each 0.5 ml.
Gentamicin 40 mg. Box of 3 or 100 ampoules each 1 ml.
Gentamicin 80 mg. Box of 3 or 100 ampoules each 2 ml.